Chromosomal organization, scaling from the 147-base pair (bp) nucleosome to megabase-ranging domains encompassing multiple transcriptional units, including heritability loci for psychiatric traits, remains largely unexplored in the human brain. In this study, we constructed promoter- and enhancer-enriched nucleosomal histone modification landscapes for adult prefrontal cortex from H3-lysine 27 acetylation and H3-lysine 4 trimethylation profiles, generated from 388 controls and 351 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia (SCZ) or bipolar disorder (BD) (n = 739). We mapped thousands of cis-regulatory domains (CRDs), revealing fine-grained, 104-106-bp chromosomal organization, firmly integrated into Hi-C topologically associating domain stratification by open/repressive chromosomal environments and nuclear topography. Large clusters of hyper-acetylated CRDs were enriched for SCZ heritability, with prominent representation of regulatory sequences governing fetal development and glutamatergic neuron signaling. Therefore, SCZ and BD brains show coordinated dysregulation of risk-associated regulatory sequences assembled into kilobase- to megabase-scaling chromosomal domains.
PMID: 35332326 DOI: 10.1038/s41593-022-01032-6
Nat Neuroscience 2022 Mar 24.